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Theophylline is an oral bronchodilator medication and is given to treat symptoms of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. The active ingredient of Theophylline, theophylline, is a chemical cousin of caffeine. It opens the airways by relaxing the smooth muscle that circles the tubes and blood vessels in the lungs.
Take Theophylline exactly as indicated. Do not change the dose, the time you take it, or how often you take it without consulting your doctor
Do not take Theophylline if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it or similar drugs.
Do not take Theophylline if you have an active Peptic ulcer or a seizure disorder such as Epilepsy.
If you are a smoker, your body will tend to process and get rid of Theophylline rather quickly; thus, you may need to take more frequent doses than a nonsmoker, resulting an over dosage. You should also take Theophylline cautiously and under close supervision if you have had a sustained high fever, or if you have heart disease, liver disease, heartbeat irregularities, fluid in the lungs, an underactive thyroid gland, the flu or another viral illness, or the symptoms of shock.Call your doctor immediately if you develop nausea, vomiting, a lasting headache, insomnia, restlessness, or a too-rapid heartbeat; if you develop a new illness, especially with a fever; or if an illness you already have gets worse
Theophylline is available in two forms. The extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole, not crushed or chewed. You may take the tablets with or without food. If you are taking them on a once-a-day basis, do not take the dose at night. The other form, Theophylline Sprinkle sustained-action capsules, must be taken either 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. You may take the capsule whole or open it and empty the contents onto a spoonful of food that is soft but not hot. Without chewing, immediately swallow the spoonful of food and follow it with a glass of cool water or juice. Always take the complete contents of the capsule. When taking Theophylline, you should avoid large amounts of caffeine-containing beverages, such as tea or coffee.
The Theophylline dosage varies depending on how old you are.
For adults, the usual initial dose is one 150-milligram tablet every 12 hours. If this is not effective, your doctor will gradually increase the dose until you respond, up to a maximum of 600 milligrams per day.
For children aged 6 to 16, maximum regular daily dosages are calculated by body weight as follows.
Less than 99 pounds--20 milligrams per 2.2 pounds up to a maximum of 600 milligrams. 99 pounds or more--600 milligrams.
The older adults are more likely to be seriously affected by Theophylline than younger people. Anyone over age 60 should not take more than 400 milligrams a day except in special circumstances.
You should know that a flu shot, influenza itself, or another viral infection may make your usual dose of Theophylline act like an overdose. Consult your doctor if you anticipate getting a flu shot, or if you think you have the flu; you may need a temporary dosage reduction. Also, you have to know that a mild overdose may cause nausea and restlessness. Taking too much over a long period of time may cause serious heartbeat irregularities, convulsions, or even death.
Since an overdose with Theophylline can be fatal you should call for emergency medical help if you suspect you took an overdose.
If you forgot to take a dose of Theophylline, take the next dose at the regular time. Do not try to make up the dose you missed.
The side effects from Theophylline cannot be anticipated. Nausea and restlessness may occur when you first start to take it, but will probably disappear as your body becomes indicated to the drug. If side effects persist, I recommend seeing your doctor; as the dosage may be too high. Other side effects may include: convulsions, diarrhea, disturbances of heart rhythm, excitability, frequent urination, hair loss, headache, heart palpitations, insomnia, irritability, muscle twitching, rash, severe seizures, tremors, vomiting
Generally avoid: Enoxacin has been shown to reduce theophylline clearance by up to 75%. The mechanism is inhibition of CYP450 1A2 hepatic metabolism. Theophylline serum levels increase 1.5 to 3.0 times when Enoxacin is administered concurrently. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, or cirrhosis may have slower theophylline clearance rates; therefore, they may be at greater risk of developing theophylline toxicity.
Management: If possible, Enoxacin therapy should be avoided in patients receiving theophylline. Levofloxacin, Sparfloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Trovafloxacin, and Lomefloxacin have been reported to cause minor or no changes in theophylline levels and may be considered as alternatives. If Enoxacin is given concomitantly with theophylline, the theophylline dosage should be reduced approximately 50% or more, and theophylline serum levels should be closely monitored. Patients should be advised to report any signs of theophylline toxicity including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, restlessness, insomnia, seizures, or irregular heartbeats to their physician.
Interactions between Theophylline (Theophylline) and Fk506 (Tacrolimus)
Monitor: Co administration of Sirolimus or Tacrolimus with other drugs that are also metabolized by CYP450 3A4 may result in elevated plasma concentrations of the Macrolide immunosuppressant and/or the co administered drug(s). The mechanism is decreased drug clearance due to competitive inhibition of CYP450 3A4 activity. Although clinical data are lacking, the possibility of prolonged and/or increased pharmacologic effects of the drugs should be considered.
Management: Pharmacologic responses and/or plasma drug levels should be monitored more closely whenever a Macrolide immunosuppressant or another substrate of CYP450 3A4 is added to or withdrawn from therapy, and the dosage(s) adjusted as necessary. Interactions between Theophylline (Theophylline) and Zyrtec (Cetirizine) The co administration with theophylline may decrease the clearance of Cetirizine. The mechanism of interaction is unknown. If you read the product label, a small decrease in the clearance of Cetirizine was observed when given with a 400 mg dose of theophylline, and it is possible that larger theophylline doses could have a greater effect. No clinically significant drug interaction has been found with theophylline at a low dose.
Other Brand Names
In some countries Theophylline may also be known as:
- Afonilum novo;
- Teosona Sol;
- Uniphyllin Continus;